Glossary of terms

Here you will find definitions of terms used in resources on the Foodsource website. You will also find these definitions on the right-hand side within chapters. If you have any suggestions for new glossary items, let us know here.

A (12) | B (4) | C (13) | D (3) | E (8) | F (7) | G (4) | H (2) | I (6) | L (5) | M (11) | N (3) | O (4) | P (5) | R (6) | S (9) | T (1) | U (1) | W (4) | Y (1) | Z (1)

Non-communicable diseases

Non-communicable diseases are diseases which are not passed from person to person. They are often long lasting and generally progress slowly. Examples include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. Unhealthy diets are one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases.

Nudge approaches

Nudge approaches are the specific application of nudge theory, whereby the physical or informational environment in which decision making takes place is purposefully changed in order to affect behaviour. On example is using smaller plates to subtly limit overall food consumption in canteens.

Nudge theory

Nudge theory is a concept in behavioural science, economics and political science which tries to achieve non-forced compliance with desired behaviours (e.g. policies). It does this through the adjustment of messaging and the context in which decisions are made, in ways that have been found to predictably affect the motives, incentives, and decision making of individuals and groups of people.

Organic farming

is an approach to farming in which synthetic chemical insecticides and herbicides and inorganic fertilisers are entirely or largely avoided. Underpinning organic farming is the idea that farming should rely on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects (e.g. agrochemicals such as pesticides and synthetic fertilisers). Certification bodies (e.g. the Soil Association in the United Kingdom) specify the practices, methods of pest control, soil amendments and so forth that are permissible if products are to achieve organic certification.

Overnutrition

Excesses of energy or a particular nutrient. Overnutrition generally refers to excessive intake of energy, but it can sometimes be used to refer to excessive intake of one or more other dietary components such as specific macronutrients or micronutrients. Overnutrition in terms of energy often results in being overweight or obese.

Ozone

A molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms (chemical formula O3; ‘trioxygen’). In the upper atmosphere (‘stratosphere’) ozone plays an important role in absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun, but is also a greenhouse gas, and at the surface has negative impacts on human health and plant growth. Ozone is also one of the by-products from atmospheric methane oxidation.

Ozone layer depletion

A decline in the level of ozone gas (O3) present in the earth's stratosphere, owing to its breakdown into oxygen (O2). This breakdown can be affected by natural processes, but is known to have been accelerated by the release of man-made chemicals, such as refrigerant gases. The ozone layer acts to reduce the amount of light at ultra-violet wavelengths reaching the earth's surface; wavelengths that can have harmful impacts on humans, including skin cancer.

Photochemical smog

Photochemical smog is observed as a haze in the atmosphere, typically near to cities. It is created through the action of sunlight on pollutants (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) emitted by automobiles and other industrial sources, which creates other pollutants harmful to health, such as ozone.

Planetary boundaries

The planetary boundaries concept refers to the idea that humans are substantially altering natural systems, and that beyond a certain level of change this may become irreversible and self sustaining. The potential result is a planet with environmental conditions that differ substantially from those in which human civilisation developed and to which many species and ecosystems are adapted. Planetary boundaries have so far been proposed for climate change, biodiversity loss, biogeochemical cycles, ocean acidification, land use, freshwater, and ozone depletion.

Precision farming

is an agricultural management practice that aims to supply plants or animals with precisely the amounts of agricultural inputs (e.g. water, pesticides, and fertilisers) they need at a specific location and moment in time, thereby increasing efficiency by reducing the total inputs needed for agricultural production, and reducing environmental impacts. Precision farming uses different types of technologies to measure, observe, and act upon factors that are relevant to the growth of crops and livestock. These can range from big data, GPS, robotics, sensors, and drones, to low-tech measures such as using bottle caps for applying the right amounts of fertilisers to individual plants. Aiming to optimize crop or livestock production, precision techniques include measuring, modelling, and responding to (site-specific) data, including weather forecasts, soil properties, soil water content, pests, and weeds.

Price elasticity

Price elasticity refers to how much the demand for a good is affected by a change in its price. A good is said to be price inelastic if a change in price means that there is little change in demand. An example might be medication or addictive substances, like tobacco. A good is said to be price elastic if a change in price greatly changes the demand for the good.

Public procurement

Public procurement refers to the acquisition of goods, services or work by public bodies such as government agencies, hospitals, and schools, or by state owned enterprises such as railways or energy providers. Such spending can represent a substantial amount of taxpayers' money and of gross domestic product in many countries, and so how it is spent is a matter of public interest. Beause of this, changing public procurement is often seen as a way in which to influence business practices.

Radiative efficiency

A measure of ‘greenhouse strength’ for different greenhouse gases, defined as the change in radiative forcing per change in atmospheric concentration of a gas (in Watts per metre square per part per billion; W m-2 ppb-1).

Radiative forcing

The measure of how different factors (including greenhouse gases) change the balance between incoming and outgoing energy in the atmosphere. Expressed as the change in energy balance per unit area (in Watts per metre square; W m-2) over a given timeframe – typically contemporary compared to preindustrial conditions.

Reduction fishery

A fishery that catches wild fish to be converted into fishmeal and fish oil (often to supply the aquaculture sector), rather than catching fish for direct human consumption.

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